Answered Questions: Monthly News for the Disability Community for October 2016

Answered Questions is a monthly resource for the Spanish language Disability Community that fills an information need. Each month, we look through the searches on our blog and through the information requests made by our patrons who speak Spanish and pick a topic that fills the largest need. Each resource mentioned below is associated with this month’s information need. We search the various Spanish language news sources and feeds throughout the month to bring you these articles. With the exception of the NIDILRR Projects and Further Investigation, all the linked articles and resources are in Spanish – any that are in English will be clearly marked. This month’s topic is bullying and its prevention. This edition of Answered Questions includes items that share strategies in preventing bullying in physical education environments that are inclusive; studies that explore the exclusion and bullying of children with cerebral palsy (CP); the interactive effects of disability, race, age, and gender; a program to help teens fight bullying and cyberbullying; sexual harassment at work; technology as a tool to help prevent bullying; and guides teachers, professors and other education professionals so as to identify and prevent bullying in schools.

NIDILRR Research:

Preventing bullying in inclusive physical education: Practical strategies for teachers (J69247). A number of strategies are presented in this article that may be implemented by physical education (PE) teachers. These strategies assist PE teachers in preventing victimization and bullying in inclusive physical education.

Experiences of social exclusion and bullying at school among children and youth with cerebral palsy (J63212). This article discusses a study that explored the experiences of children with disabilities in relation to exclusion and bullying. The results of the study showed that exclusion was influenced by restrictions in the socio-contextual environment. The results also showed that the children experienced social exclusion from their teachers and their peers. Bullies participated in implicit and explicit forms of social exclusion and this often led to verbal and physical bullying of children with disabilities. The results suggest that more social inclusion opportunities are needed.

Intersectionality and disability harassment: The interactive effects of disability, race, age, and gender (J62704) describes a study that examined if there was an interaction between disability, race, gender, age, and employer characteristics in relation to the proportion of harassment versus other forms of discrimination allegations. Through extensive analysis of the data from the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors found several interaction effects. Through this data analysis, the authors found unique clusters of characteristics that place some groups at a very low risk or very high risk of experiencing disability harassment.


Bullying and scholastic bullying of children with disabilities (Discapacidad y salud – Argentina) discusses how bullying and scholastic bullying are defined, includes statistics of bullying of children with disabilities in different countries, defines the symptoms and consequences of bullying in school, and discusses prevention.


Before harassment, prevention and intervention (Amazings/Noticias de la Ciencia y la Tecnología – Spain) discusses how violence through harassment, bullying, and cyberbullying is not only noxious for the victim, it can also have negative effects on the aggressors and on those observing the violent behaviors. Maite Garaigordobil, professor of Psychological Evaluation at the Universidad of the Basque Country, and her team developed an intervention program to help prevent and reduce bullying and cyberbulling that is aimed at teenagers and that is applied to the scholastic context. Cyberprogram 2.0, as the program is called, has three objectives: clarify what is bullying and cyberbullying, including the roles of victim, aggressor, and observer; have teens analyze the negative consequences that bullying and cyberbulling have on all involved’ along with helping teens develop the capacity to criticize and denounce violent behavior and to develop empathy for the victim; and, finally, teach teens basic coping strategies to prevent bullying and cyberbullying from the perspective of the victim and observers. Professor Garaigordobil and her team created a study to evaluate Cyberprogram 2.0 and the results showed that it is an effective tool to prevent and reduce bullying, cyberbullying, and aggression and that it helps increase positive social behavior, empathy, self-esteem, and the capability to resolve conflicts in a constructive manner.

Technology as a tool for the prevention of bullying (Universidad Internacional de Valencia – Spain) describes cyberbullying as a modality of scholastic bullying that is done online instead of in person through the use of social media, blogs, email, cell phones, texts, SMS or whatsapp, or other technologies. The article also discusses the grave danger of cyberbullying due to the anonymity that it provides the person doing the bullying, which makes it difficult to demonstrate and to persecute. The types of cyberbullying are described along with how technology can also be a barrier towards cyberbullying. The guide “Bullying in the classroom” can be downloaded for free.


Guide for the identification and prevention of bullying in school (Ministry of Education – Guatemala) is a guide for teachers, professors, education professionals, and other interested parties in the education community. This guide provides basic information on bullying in schools, along with tools and practical suggestions that help identify and deal with bullying, so as to guarantee the rights of children, teens, and young adults in an educational environment. The guide from Guatemala’s Ministry of Education is divided in sections that define bullying in the school environment, give suggestions on how to explain bullying, define myths about bullying and how they make matters worse, and provide recommendations for identifying and preventing bullying in the school system. The guide also provides activities that reinforce what was learned in the previous sections.


Workplace Bullying, Harassment, and Disability (A webinar for the Northeast ADA Center – US) (In English) was presented by LaWanda Cook of Cornell University. The webinar explores the differences in definition and legality between bullying and harassment, provides a view of the impact of bullying in the workplace, shares relevant findings from Cornell’s Work-Life Balance and Disability Study, and more.

Combatting sexual harassment at work (CSI – Confederación Sindical Internacional – Belgium) is a document that provides information on sexual harassment in the work place. The information provided includes a definition of sexual harassment that includes examples; defines who are the victims and aggressors; defines the social, human, and economic cost of sexual harassment in the workplace; provides information on international organizations that are working towards ending sexual harassment in the workplace; and provides steps on how to end sexual harassment in the workplace.


  • (USA) (in English) – provides information in English and Spanish on bullying and bullying prevention of children with disabilities, LGTB youth, and all children in general. This website provides information on risk factors and the signs and effects of bullying. It also includes information on how to prevent cyberbullying in English and Spanish.
  • Bullying and Harassment of Students with Disabilities – Spanish Version (Pacer Center) (USA) (In Spanish) – This Action Information Sheet from the Pacer Center describes ten essential things that parents, educators, and students need to know about bullying and harassment of students with disabilities. It includes information on federal laws related to bullying and harassment, defines bullying, describes how bullying affects a student’s ability to learn, provides information on state laws dealing with the rights of students with disabilities when they are victims of bullying, and provides resources specifically designed for students with disabilities who are being bullied.
  • 10 educational resources to combat bullying (Tiching – School Education Network) provides information that includes statistics about children being bullied. This blog post also provides resources aimed at children between 6 and 12 years old that share what to do when they witness or experience bullying in school, define bullying, that help teachers discuss bullying with their young students. It also provides resources for children between 12 and 18 years old that provide articles to help teens reflect on bullying in school, define bullying, explore situations dealing with bullying in schools and other educational centers, provide data about bullying, and provide practical means to stop bullying in school.
  • National Disability Employment Awareness Month 2016 (NDEAM) (US Department of Labor) (in English) helps to educate the public about disability employment issues, such as bullying in the workplace, and to celebrate the many contributions made by America’s workers with disabilities. This year’s theme is #InclusionWorks and the hashtag is intended to urge groups, organizations, and individuals to post images and encourage discussion on social media about the many ways “inclusion works”.
  • Right Resources, Right Now (NARIC – USA) (in English) is a blog post from NARIC staff that provides resources on bullying prevention in the workplace that include resources on people with disabilities being forced to accept unreasonable accommodations in the workplace.

Further Research:

About mpgarcia

I'm the Bilingual Information/Media Specialist at NARIC.
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